Saturday, May 30, 2020

My Understanding Of Affirmative Action - Free Essay Example

In the novel Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison, the African American protagonist gets expelled from his university after showing the school’s white donor the reality of the slums. This crushes the narrator’s belief of carefully adhering to white supremacist rule and his dream of using education as a stepping stone to escape poverty is shattered. He is forced to move to the South, where he realizes he is invisible because of the way whites and blacks treat him.   As an Asian student, I cannot directly relate to the narrator in the context of race, but I can empathize as a student of color. Throughout the novel, the Invisible Man is concerned with being unseen because of his race. The wealthy white folks use the narrator as a charity case, while the blacks see him as another soldier eager to serve the new social order. He is shown the reality of being disposable and how people can never truly see him past his skin color. At a school that is 65% Asian, I identify with what it means to be â€Å"just another Asian student† and often remain unseen because people group me with the masses, instead of seeing me as an individual. In Invisible Man, the political organization, the Brotherhood, attempt to force the Invisible Man to think and have the same beliefs as the organization. Similarly, society often forces the notion upon me that I should think and inherently have the same viewpoints as other Asians as well. The Invisible Man and I are both blind to other people because they see us as only our race, preventing others from completely understanding our identity. Instead, this forces individuals to resort to using stereotypes to complete our narrative and prevents others from acknowledging the racial tensions that empower minorities to share their experiences. The process of applying to higher education institions illustrates to me, this conflict. I intend to apply to many colleges, and there is currently a lawsuit that highlights the inequality of the admissions process. Although affirmative action, the act of promoting the education and employment for those that have been historically discriminated against, suggest that a spot at this prestigious university is guaranteed to a student of color that excels academically, this is not the case. A third way of evaluating college admissions that is being considered in the application process is to holistically examine merit and race, in combination with disclosed extenuating circumstances, that could be widely used in the future to provide equity without resorting to stereotypes. The application process at Harvard and many other Ivy Leagues in general have always been competitive. For Harvard’s class of 2021, the admittance rate was a meager 5.9%— out of the record number 42,742 students that applied, 2,056 got in and 40,686 were rejected. In recent years, the college has been praised for its consideration of students from diverse backgrounds due to the vast increase in Asian American and African American students accepted and applicants from low-income and first-generation backgrounds. In fact, the trend of Harvard admitting students from minority backgrounds really began to rise with the admittance of the class of 2018. â€Å"The Class of 2018 reflects the excellence achieved by the students of an increasingly diverse America,† said William R. Fitzsimmons, Dean of Admissions and Financial Aid. â€Å"Attracting such students to the College is vital to Harvard’s mission of educating the future leaders of our nation.† However, while the percentages of white students admitted has been following a downward trend (2017, 61.7% white; 2021, 52.1% white) from the predominantly white institution, Asian activists have stated that the application process has been discriminatory towards Asians by pitting them against other minorities and having them compete for spots in the distinguished university (Harvard University Admissions and Financial Aid). Thus, the alleged consistent discrimination against Asian American students has led Student for Fair Admissions (SFA), a coalition of students and parents that stand against racial preferences in the college application process, to sue Harvard University on November 2014. They claimed Harvard was in direct violation of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which made discrimination on account of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, illegal. In particular, they wanted to highlight the policy of affirmative action from the Act that was passed to ensure equal representation in education and schools, but now has been used against Asian Americans by favoring other minorities and according to the rejected students â€Å"penalizing their high achievements as a group.† During the trial, Fitzsimmons revealed that recruitment letters were only sent to African Americans that scored around 1100 while Asian Americans were sent one only if they scored 1350 for women and 1380 for men— at least a 250 point difference out of the total score of 1600 (Eustachewich). Fitzsimmons challenged the notion that this was racism by stating that this policy would â€Å"break the cycle† by targeting racial groups that normally wouldn’t consider applying. Every year, around 4,910 Asian American, 1,938 African American, 2,082 Hispanic American, and 8,685 white students apply to Harvard. Yet, Asian Americans have the lowest rate of acceptance of any racial groups from 1995 to 2013 in data revealed during the Harvard trial. Asian Americans had an acceptance rate of 8.1%, Hispanic American had an acceptance rate of 10.6%, 13.2% for African Americans, and 11.1% for white students (Yonah and McCafferty). The university has also been criticized for lowering the SAT cut off scores for Hispanic and African American students. According to data released in court documents, Asian American students admitted to Harvard consistently had the highest SAT score and averaged 767 out of the sectional total score of 800 from 2000 to 2017. By comparison, white students had an average score of 745 (22 points difference), Hispanic American students had an average score 718 (49 points difference), and African Americans had an average score of 704 (63 points difference) (Yonah and McCafferty). Furthermore, Harvard admission officers have been condemned for using harmful stereotypes to characterize Asian American students: â€Å"Oh, typical Asian student. Wants to be a doctor. Nothing special here.† was written in an applicant’s files (Li). Admission officers ranked Asian Americans low in personality traits and said Asian students lacked courage, a likeable personality, compassion, and were seen as less â€Å"widely respected.† This has drawn criticism from many Asian Americans who feel that the anti-Asian bias of Harvard exacerbates the stereotypes of Asian Americans being non-unique, meek, and replaceable in American society and the academic environment (Li).   Harvard has garnered criticism from many Asian American activist groups for favoring other minority groups, thus making the lawsuit primarily focused on whether race should be completely eliminated from admission policies— a â€Å"race- blind† admission. The outcome of the court case has been closely watched by other universities because it could influence their own admission policies and has lead the Justice Department to open a full-on investigation on the admission policies of the most competitive schools in America, including Harvard (Adams). When affirmative action was first passed in an executive order by President John F. Kennedy, it   was intended to address the inequalities for many minorities who were previously barred from job opportunities. Because they have traditionally been stereotyped to fit particular careers or interests, the policy was intended to encourage diversity and give minorities a chance to show their skills in job sectors where they were previously not represented.   The Civil Rights Act of 1964 expanded on the executive order and prevented racial segregation in schools. This allowed students from disadvantaged backgrounds, often minorities, the opportunity to attend universities that previously made it difficult for them to do so. For example, SAT and ACT tests are required by universities. Yet, improvements are shown only when students retake it several times, which low-income students are unable to afford to do so (Gorgan). In addition, low-income students often do not have the privileges th at wealthy students often seek— private tutors, test prep and extracurriculars, that can really make a difference in one’s application. Affirmative action attempted to understand students achievements based on their circumstances. Critiques of a race-blind policy also state that university relying on test scores and grades are outdated because while it measures academic intelligence— it can never reveal life skills such as the resilience and challenge students have to go through. Accordingly to Parker Gorgan, staff columnist for the Crimson White: â€Å"The challenges faced by various socioeconomic statuses, which in America is highly correlated with race, does not indicate a difference in intellectual ability, but rather a difference in circumstances and, thereby, opportunities.† Low-income students that score lower on tests are not given the opportunity to show their true potential because of their economic circumstances, so solely looking at their test scores is not an accurate measure of their contribution to a class environment. In John Iceland’s book Poverty in America those that historically faced discrimination and segregation had the highest poverty rates and were less educated. E specially, because of America’s racist past, minorities are more likely to face low levels of education, employment, income, and chronic health problems. Affirmative action wanted to increase the opportunities for those who were underserved.   According to statistics compiled by the New York Times, minority students accepted were vastly lower in schools that made the decision not to factor in an applicant’s race during the admission process, which did not correlate with the expanding number of minority high school graduates. In addition, proponents of affirmative action says that if Harvard admissions were race-blind, there would be a overwhelming Asian majority, which is what occurred when admission officers did not factor in race (Fessenden, Keller). The race-blind policy prevented schools from fully understanding the story of an individual and a key part of their identity, detracting from the purpose of a college application.   Others have stated that the favoritism towards Hispanic Americans and African Americans, essentially downplays the struggles that Asians have faced. By perpetuating the idea that Asians are the â€Å"model minority† and have the same advantages whites have, the favoritism erases the discrimination that Asians have constantly had to fight against. For example, the â€Å"Oriental School† established for Chinese students (later Korean and Japanese students) in San Francisco 1859 was intended to segregate Asians from attending any other schools in San Francisco. The regulation was only formally redacted two years ago, in 2017, after almost 100 years have passed when San Francisco ended school segregation in 1871 (Fuchs). By stating that Asians students are the model minority, people forget about the history of Anti-Asian sentiments, namely the Chinese Exclusion Act that prevented the immigration of Chinese laborers or the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. Favoritism of other minorities causes individuals to ignore attacks on Asians and downplay the seriousness of the situation. For example, in a 2017 report by BBC news, Chinese students in Columbia University were targeted and had their name tags ripped off in their dorms because their names sounded foreign and were hard to pronounce (Toomey). In 2018, Students at Washington University made anti-Asian remarks in a group chat: â€Å"Why are Asians invading our study room?† and â€Å"Fuck there’s one in my room too.†Ã‚   (Whitford) The stereotype of Asians â€Å"taking over† has its roots in the â€Å"yellow peril† stereotype and invokes images of a foreign invasion. This continues the negative vie w that Asians Americans are un-American or foreign. Whenever there is an overabundance of minorities at a school, they face issues of belonging. I have certainly faced it at Lowell High School where I am part of the student body that comprises of the school’s 65% Asian population. As reported by US News World Report, the student body comprises of 15% white, 10% Hispanic, and 2% African American. When people say that Lowell has a large Asian population, they often say it in a demeaning way and blame Asians as the root cause for why there is not more diversity. They make the assumption that I benefited from the advantages in my home life, my parents are well off, and my space should be reserved for other minorities because they don’t have the same advantages that I do.   However, I do not come from a wealthy background. In fact, my parents are non-English speaking immigrants. I am low income and first-gen, live in government subsidized housing, and am part of the free or reduced lunch program at school. I take the bus for four hours everyday just to get to and from school. I live in a neighborhood that has the highest crime rate and drug usage in the city. Yet, I do the best I can in striving towards a higher education for a better future for my family and did the best I could in my public middle school to get accepted to this school. But because people believe the model minority myth, Asians are often seen as not the intended recipient for affirmative action and I am unable to get the help I need to be successful.   By categorizing Asians as a group that already has lots of privileges, admission officers are quick to make judgement and have a incomplete story of students. For example, in a report by New York Times, Southeast Asian communities have poverty rates equal to Black and Latino communities and many are strong supporters of affirmative action. Yet, they are not considered Asian most of the time and are reported to face more discrimination than other Asians in the United States and their political issues never receive widespread news coverage. The categorization of Asians being the â€Å"model minority† has easily been taken advantage of using affirmative action (Guan). Many have also criticized affirmative action for essentially downplaying the academic efforts of a student because their race was a determining factor for admission. This was the argument in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) where Bakke, a white man, sued the UCs citing that he had been rejected at the University of Davis twice because of his race. Bakke contended that his merits in GPA and test scores were significantly higher than any minorities admitted during those two years he applied but the University had a affirmative action system that guaranteed admission for 16 â€Å"qualified minorities† out of a class of 100 students that prevented him from being accepted (Oyez). The Supreme Court maintained that affirmative action was constitutional but quotas were illegal because it didn’t comply with the Fourteenth Amendment, which ensures that all individuals have equal rights, privileges, and protection. However, the Court stated that there is a reasonable way for race to be considered in admissions to ensure diversity and highlighted the efforts of Harvard’s â€Å"race-conscious† admissions where if the application team determined that a student’s race would enrich the diversity and experience of the class, then they would be selected over other candidates who may have higher academic scores (MBA Crystal Ball). The student would be able to provide viewpoints, perspectives, and stories that their peers may not necessarily be exposed to. This ensures that students are able to become leaders in an increasingly diverse society and participate in discussions as informed students. More recently in the Fisher v. University of Texas (2013, 2016) case, the first court ruling cited that the University of Texas should strive for more race neutral alternatives to admissions after Fisher, a white student, was denied. However, the ruling was overturned in 2016 after the Supreme Court found that race played a small role in the â€Å"holistic† review of applicants. According to US News World report, a closer look at UT’s admission policies found that even if race was considered, it was not the deciding factor in the outcome. Their approach evaluated other factors such as the the candidates community service and socioeconomic status as well (Camera).   Other detractors for affirmative action state that it is unfair for students to be given an advantage based solely on their skin color rather than the obstacles and circumstances they have faced. This means that students who may not need the help of affirmative action are receiving it. In addition, the notion of giving favorability based on skin color has lead many to term affirmative action: â€Å"reverse discrimination† because it necessitates an illegal quota value instead of looking at merits and standards.   Opponents of the affirmative action also criticize the diversity argument because it reinforces the stereotype that women and minorities can only thrive if given unfair advantages over others. This is highlighted in two of the Supreme Court judges differing opinions. Justice Sonia Sotomayor, the first Hispanic judge on the Supreme Court, supports affirmative action and has admitted that affirmative action helped her get into Princeton and Yale, while Justice Clarence Thomas, the second African-American judge on the Supreme Court, has said he always felt â€Å"inferior to white students† and wished he never revealed his race during his admission to Yale. Thomas has stated that the argument for affirmative action’s educational benefits is a â€Å"faddish theory and promotes segregation† (Barro). Many opponents of affirmative action also state that it also is unhelpful because of the ‘mismatch theory’ which postulates minorities who are admitted because of affirmative action are unable to be on par with the expectations of the school and are often behind in comparison to their peers— in graduation rates, academic grades, and income. According to Inside Higher Ed, African American and Hispanics are 1.5 times more likely to dropout of college with links to affirmative action. In a 2005 study published by Inside Higher Ed, 52% of African American students at Yale were at the bottom tenth of their classes because many were unable to handle their course load (Tate). In addition, many believe that minority gain from affirmative action but studies have shown that white women benefit the most and are amongst its fiercest opponents. According to the California Senate Government Organization Committee, the first two decades after affirmative action was passed, there was a rise in white women in careers, especially in managerial positions (Massie). White women comprised of 57,250 managerial positions compared to African Americans who had 10,500, Latinos 19,000, and Asian Americans 24,600. In a 2014 survey conducted by Cooperative Congressional Election Study, 70% of white women said they somewhat or strongly opposed affirmative action.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Allegorical Garden of Eden in Sir Gawain and the Green...

Allegorical Garden of Eden in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Green helmet. Green body. Green blood. Such descriptions refer to a central character in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight--they depict the appearance of Bercilak as the Green Knight. The use of green is a reflection of Garden of Eden imagery in the poem that portrays the Green Knight as a tempter, a serpent, in the garden, Arthur’s court. In Genesis’ account of Eden, Adam and Eve live in a perfect, pure garden until the evil, green serpent successfully tempts them. When the serpent tells Eve that consuming fruit from the forbidden tree--the one God warned them not to eat from--will result in the same knowledge God holds, Eve convinces Adam to eat the apple. According to†¦show more content†¦During this feast, the knights and their guests eat lavishly and drink in excess--they have all the meat and mirth that one could devise (45) and celebrate In peerless pleasures . . . (50). The feast depicts a worldly paradise with knights who act as they desire, as Adam and Eve were allowed to in Genesis. However, Gawain’s garden in not without sin. The existence of sin is evident in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. The sin in Gawain’s garden results from chivalry. The code of knighthood Gawain and other knights follow includes courage and loyalty to one’s lord. This courage and loyalty carries with it a sense of pride for the knights, pride that causes them to sin. Thus, Gawain fails to follow a life of purity, for as he follows the code of knighthood, he participates in Christian sin--murder, drunkenness, pride. For instance, when the Green Knight gives an offer to Arthur’s court to play the beheading game, he initially receives no volunteers. However, as Arthur attempts to participate, Gawain steps up and takes his place, for it is his role to be loyal and fight for his lord. This is evident when he states, My body, but for your [Arthur] blood, is barren of worth; / And for that this folly befits not a king, / And tis that I have asked it, it ought to be mine ( 357-359). This, then, leads him to sin, to c hop off another man’s head. Sin is evident even before the Green Knight’s entrance--the knights succumb to physical pleasures during the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Culture The Deaf And Hard Of Hearing - 1216 Words

Our world is made up of billions of people, all roaming the earth together. Each individual is unique in their own way; each with their own story to tell. They all come from different ethnic groups, speak different languages, and follow different religions. This uniqueness of an individual can be classified as culture. According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language; Culture is defined as the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. (Harcourt, 2015) A culture group that is often misunderstood, or entirely forgotten is the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Looking closely at this group one can see that though members come from diverse backgrounds, the bond of being deaf as well as the individuality of their own language, American Sign Language, helps create their own enriched culture and community. Additional culture can be seen as various groups of people who develop distinctive ways of describing, valuing and behaving in the world. (Smith, Lentz, Mikos, 2008) The Deaf culture consist of Deaf people who are normal everyday people just like you and me, who perceive themselves as members of a linguistic minority group. Many Deaf people see themselves as members of a cultural entity and therefore reject the notion that they are disabled. For them they are normal in every sense expect for the minor inconvenience of being unable to hear. (Holcomb, 2013) As a member of theShow MoreRelatedFinal Exam Questions : 139 Deaf Culture1172 Words   |  5 PagesExam Questions-CDDS 139 Deaf Culture 2. Describe the ways in which Deaf culture is different from American culture in terms of communication and sharing of information. Deaf culture is different from American culture in a variety of ways. First off, the way these two cultures communicate is quite different. In Deaf culture, individuals communicate using ASL while in American culture individuals communicate mainly in English. Secondly, American culture is an individualist culture where sharing personalRead MoreEssay about Deaf Culture1561 Words   |  7 PagesDeaf Culture I may not be considered part of the hearing culture due to my severe to profound hearing loss, but some people might be surprised to hear that I am not considered a part of the Deaf culture. A majority of the Deaf culture is very critical of those who assimilate with hearing people and accept hearing culture as their majority culture. I believe that every hearing impaired and deaf person is an individual and needs to do what is best for them instead of being worried about followingRead MoreDeaf : A Common Experience Of Life1590 Words   |  7 Pages that being deaf it was more difficult than being blind, â€Å"Blindness cuts people off from things; deafness cuts people off from people. (Harrington, 2000). Many hearing people, might think of a deaf person as defected, or handicapped, and pity them, but most people in Deaf communities do not think of themself as disabled or handicapped, they embraced the way they are, and turn a physiological difference, in to something beautiful, creating what we know today as Deaf culture. Deaf people as aRead MoreA Journey Into The Deaf World Essay985 Words   |  4 Pagesbook â€Å"A Journey into the Deaf-World†, by Harlan Lane, Robert Hoffmeister, and Ben Bahan, is about the different people who are considered deaf: hard-of-hearing, deaf, and CODA. People who are hard-of-hearing are people who don t hear well; people who are deaf lack the power of hearing since birth; you can be born hearing and throughout time lose some or all of your hearing sense. People who are CODA (children of deaf adults) are often signing because their parents are deaf and CODA’s often are helpfulRead MoreDeaf Americans: Community and Culture1427 Words   |  6 PagesAn average of 90% of all babies born deaf or with some type of hearing loss are born to hearing parents. Deafness can be caused by a variety of things both genetic and environmental. Upon learning their child is deaf, most hearing families try to find ways to fix what they feel is a defect. However, deaf families rejoice in their childs deafness because now they have another person to strengthen the deaf community and carry on the American Deaf culture. There are approximately 35 million peopleRead MoreSubstance Abuse Among Deaf Community And Service Providers Working With The Deaf Essay1457 Words   |  6 PagesThere has been a growing interest in the field of substance abuse among the deaf community and service providers working with the Deaf. In 1990, Gallaudet University hosted a national conference on Substance Abuse in the Deaf Community, and since then there has been a noticeable increase in sharing information and compiling lists of available resources in the country. The approaches to advocating for services vary from community to community. Some are decentralized; others focus on one aspect ofRead MoreChildren With Disabilities Act ( Ada )1222 Words   |  5 PagesBefore 1990 the United States did not systematically have tools or laws in place for Deaf individuals. In 1991, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) – a civil rights law was implemented across the U.S [with four sections] that prohibit discriminatio n against people with disabilities including deaf and hearing impaired people. The purpose of the ADA is to make sure that people with disabilities have the same rights and opportunities as everyone else. Each section of the ADA – employment, governmentRead MoreEssay on Communication for the Deaf: Oralism and Manaulism1693 Words   |  7 Pagesmany deaf and hard of hearing people must do to learn how to speak. The technique of teaching deaf people how to speak and read lips is referred to as oralism. It is a hard and laborious method and in the past often had extreme measures, that were border line abusive, put in place to try and ensure success. Manaulism is when a deaf person uses sign language as their primary from of communication. Learning to communicate using sign language is much more easier on a deaf or hard of hearing personRead MoreEmbracing The Deaf Culture Of The Mainstream Classroom1656 Words   |  7 PagesEmbracing the Deaf Culture in the Mainstream Clas sroom Deaf is defined as partially or completely lacking the sense of hearing as to where Deaf culture refers to members of the Deaf community who share common values, traditions, norms, language and behaviors. According to the National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders, three out of every 1,000 American children are born deaf or with hearing loss and 9 out of 10 of those children are born to fully-hearing parents. Most of theseRead MoreRacial Stereotypes Of Deaf And Deaf868 Words   |  4 Pagesmisfortune, but being deaf does not limit the abilities of a person. Members of the Deaf community consider deafness to be normal rather than a disability. A deaf people can do anything a hearing person can do, such as, drive, participate in group activities, communicate, and have normal lives. Deaf In the film â€Å"Through Deaf Eyes†, an HDTV documentary including interviews, personal stories, and historic accounts, the prejudice and affirmation of Deaf culture is re vealed to show hearing people the reality

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Quick Summary free essay sample

Maru is definitely not likeable but then again most real life leaders are not. Leaders portrayed in literature, movies tend to be likeable because the writer wants to champion some idea using that character. In this case, I don’t think Bessie head necessarily wanted us to like Maru or feel warm fuzzies about Margaret finally ending up with Maru( and not Moleka). She was driving the point home that the reality of overcoming prejudice takes more than inviting one’s servants to the dinner table and eating from the same fork. Maru has to literally create a new society and he hand-picks those that he deems to be worthy of being citizens of such a society and also those who have characters that would make a good foundation for such a society. Those that thrive in the existing society – such as Moleka, Dikeledi – are left in the old society. He even connives to get Moleka and Dikeledi together because they are some of the best at what they do in that society. We will write a custom essay sample on Quick Summary or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page All the unsavoury characters such as all the women who were after Maru’s position, all the bigots who looked down upon Margaret, the nurses who refused to wash the body of the dead â€Å"Masarwa† women – all of them are left behind in the old society.  the missionary Margaret Cadmore eventually leaves; the goat and her kid leave the village of abuse and go and live with Margaret; the bus driver that transports Margaret into the prejudiced society places Margaret in the â€Å"good hands† of mistress Dikeledi and then he leaves with the bus; Maru is the next in line to be king but he can’t rule such a society – his dreams are bigger than their prejudices so he also leaves and he takes with him the few candidates that would be good seed for cultivating a new just society. That is also why he is constantly plagued by the fact that he can never know if his decision to take Margaret away from Moleka was the right decision. He can only let time tell which seeds will grow and which ones will not. He loves Margaret but he is never sure if his love was the greater one – the better one – the one that does not lead to the destruction of the one character that is untainted by the warped society. as sure as he is of himself and his vision, he still cannot see the picture from the point of view of universe†¦..  i. e. why are there men like Moleka, why are there men like Maru, why do even the purest of women still get attracted to men like Moleka. Remember Margaret’s first encounter with Moleka is not exactly a rosy walk in the park†¦why is there women who scheme for social position, why is it that men such as Maru have to trick women into marrying them. why are people like Dikeledi quite happy to accept the way things are even tho ugh they see the prejudices as clearly as Maru, et cetera – hence his recurring nightmare. When we are introduced to moleka, it is clear that he thrives in that society. When we are introduced to Dikeledi, it is also clear that she embraces her positions in that society – and the only men that is good enough for her is Moleka. when we are introduced to Maru, he is not liked by his servants. Margaret has troubled introduction to the world. Moleka and Dikeledi belong and thrive in the current system. Maru and Margaret do not thrive in that system. So do Maru and Margaret stick around and accept the death plots and prejudice? So, I like Maru as a character because in the end, he actually makes a stand against the whole village, he challenges Moleka to come after him if his love is really superior – alas, Moleka chooses the here and now. So, Maru is not by any means perfect but then again Moleka is not exactly a saint either. Maru chooses the future without prejudice in a new society. Moleka chooses the current society with all its flaws. i think it is a misconception to think that Bessie head meant this to be a fairy tale. This story is very close to reality. There are no happy solutions to fighting injustice, prejudice and other such vices. The overcoming of such only is attained by those who are strong enough to make tough decisions even when those decisions are unpopular. Would Moleka really have left his womanizing ways and settled for a woman who didn’t care about social status? †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦if Bessie head had ended the story with Moleka and Margaret together then it would have been a fairy tale

Friday, April 17, 2020

Johnson Behavioral System (JBS) Model Essays - Nursing Theory

Johnson Behavioral System (JBS) Model In this paper, I am going to summarize the Johnson Behavioral System (JBS) Model (Johnson, 1980, 1990), explain the perspectives for nursing practice, and explore its applicability in nursing practice. First, I am going to talk a little about Dorothy E. Johnson the nurse that wrote the Model. Dorothy E. Johnson was born August 21, 1919, in Savannah, Georgia (Lobo, 1995). She received her A.A. from Armstrong Junior College in Savannah, Georgia, in 1938; her B.S.N. from Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1942; and her M.P.H. from Harvard University in Boston in 1948 (Conner, Harbour, Magers, and Watt 1994). Johnson was an instructor and an assistant professor in pediatric nursing at Vanderbilt University School of Nursing from 1944 to 1949. From 1949 until her retirement in 1978 and subsequent move to Key Largo, Florida, she was an assistant professor of pediatric nursing, an associate professor of nursing, and a professor of nursing at the University of California in Los Angeles (Conner et. al. 1994). In 1955 and 1956 she was eligible to go on a sabbatical and went to the Christian Medical College School of Nursing in Vellore, South India, were she was interested in starting a baccalaureate program which was received well (Lobo, 1995). Dorothy Johnson has had an influence on nursing through her publications since the 1950s. Throughout her career, Johnson has stressed the importance of research-based knowledge about the effect of nursing care on clients. Johnson was an early proponent of nursing as a science as well as an art. She also believed nursing had a body of knowledge reflecting both the science and the art. From the beginning, Johnson (1959) proposed that the knowledge of the science of nursing necessary for effective nursing care included a synthesis of key concepts drawn from basic and applied sciences. In 1961, Johnson proposed that nursing care facilitated the client's maintenance of a state of equilibrium. Johnson proposed that clients were "stressed" by a stimulus of either an internal or external nature. These stressful stimuli created such disturbances, or "tensions," in the patient that a state of disequilibrium occurred. Johnson identified two areas that nursing care should be based in order to return the client to a state of equilibrium. First, by reducing stressful stimuli, and second, by supporting natural and adaptive processes. Johnson's behavioral system theory springs from Nightingales belief that nursing's goal is to help individuals prevent or recover from disease or injury. The "science and art" of nursing should focus on the patient as an individual and not on the specific disease entity. Johnson used the work of behavioral scientists in psychology, sociology, and ethnology to develop her theory. The model is patterned after a systems model; a system is defined as consisting of interrelated parts functioning together to form a whole (Conner et. al. 1994). Johnson states that a nurses should use the behavioral system as their knowledge base; comparable to the biological system that physicians use as their base of knowledge (Lobo, 1995). Theory The reason Johnson chose the behavioral system model is the idea that "all the patterned, repetitive, purposeful ways of behaving that characterize each person's life make up an organized and integrated whole, or a system" (other). Johnson states that by categorizing behaviors, they can be predicted and ordered. Johnson categorized all human behavior into seven subsystems (SSs): Attachment, Achievement, Aggressive, Dependence, Sexual, Ingestive, and Eliminative. Each subsystem is composed of a set of behavioral responses or tendencies that share a common goal. These responses are developed through experience and learning and are determined by numerous physical, biological, psychological, and social factors. Four assumptions are made about the structure and function of each SS. These four assumptions are the "structural elements" common to each of the seven SSs. The first assumption is "from the form the behavior takes and the consequences it achieves can be inferred what drive has been stimulated or what goal is being sought" (Johnson, 1980). The ultimate goal for each subsystem is expected to be the same for all individuals. The second assumption is that each individual has a "predisposition to act, with reference to the goal, in certain ways rather than in other ways"

Friday, March 13, 2020

How to Be a Writer 10 Traits of Professional Authors

How to Be a Writer 10 Traits of Professional Authors How to Be a Writer: 10 Traits of Professional Authors If you’re here, you might be wondering how to be a writer for a living. When I see bestselling authors who have turned writing books into a full-time career, I have to stop and ask myself: â€Å"How did they do it?†Stephen King has written over seventy bestsellers since the publication of Carrie in 1974. To this day he continues to write consistently.James Patterson has sold more than 300 million books worldwide. He has been quoted as saying: â€Å"Its pretty much seven days a week for me. Youre lucky if you find something you like to do and then its a miracle somebody will pay you to do it. Thats my situation. Its not work for me. These are all stories that Im really dying to tell.†Harry Potter author J.K. Rowling, once jobless and with a dependent child, has sold over 430 million copies of her books.What magic formula do these authors have? What super-talent have they been blessed with? What am I NOT doing now that I could be doing to turn my passion for writin g into a real career?How to Be a WriterNow you might be thinking, â€Å"Well, good for them. But I just want to make enough money on my writing to earn a living, not 100 million bucks!†But it’s not about how much money you can make at your writing. That might come later, but what really matters is this: practicing the habits and actions professional authors implement as part of their work life that leads to this kind of success. You don’t have to earn a fortune to be a professional writer; you just need to model what the pros do and the outcome will take care of itself.There are a set of definitive traits pro authors have that make them masters of the trade. Good writing that sells is the result of these essential traits. For both indie and traditionally published authors, these 10 traits of professional authors are universal and a must-have for launching your author career.Here are the top 10 traits of pro authors, and how you can adopt these traits to become a professional writer that gets books published, earns you an income, and creates a sustainable business you can grow and love.Pro Author Trait #1: Develop a Daily Writing HabitPro writers have developed the writing habit. They write almost every day and have a word count goal for the day. Pro writers stick to a consistent writing schedule and put in the time to put pen to paper [or words into a Word doc]. This is one of the most critical traits. Without putting in your writing time, your book becomes a â€Å"someday† thing instead of an â€Å"it’s-happening-right-now† thing.By nurturing the writing habit, you are creating content people will love to read and pay money for. You will exercise that writing muscle and churn out a great story, a memoir, or a book that offers solutions.Ask yourself:What is my daily word count goal?How many words would I have to write every day to finish my next book by a chosen deadline?How many books could I finish in a year if I sti ck to a writing habit of 1500 words per day? [You might be surprised!]Pro Author Trait #2: Approach Writing as a BusinessA hobby is something you do when you have time; the business of writing and becoming a pro author is what you make time for every work day. Authors who approach writing as a business are far more likely to succeed than hobby authors who show up occasionally with little direction and lofty ideas. A professional author is, essentially, a creative business person.As with any business, your author business needs a schedule, deadlines, goals, and a plan. Authors spend time planning the material they are creating, how they will deliver it and, most important, they deliver when that deadline approaches.As with any job, you have to show up every day at the time designated or else you don’t get paid. Writers who make a living at their craft go to work every day with the mindset that this IS their business and not just a dreamy project that they are going to pick awa y at. One of the fatal flaws many â€Å"hobby authors† make is in thinking that the writing success will just happen if they keep plugging away haphazardly. Maybe it will, but most likely, it’s your approach to the writing craft as a business that will determine your level of success.Of course there is nothing wrong with writing as a hobby! However, if you want to turn this into a real thing, start to think and plan as a business leader. Pro authors make a living at writing because they are intentional with their business goals.Ask yourself:Am I a writing hobbyist or is this my future business?Do I have a business plan for my author business?Pro Author Trait #3: Write Valuable Content People Want to ReadA pro author does one of two things: either tells a good story [fiction] or provides solutions to a problem [nonfiction]. A great author can even combine both for a more compelling read!It isn’t enough just to be a good writer, but you have to write with intentio nal purpose and provide valuable content people want to read. If you write fiction, you craft page-turners with crisp plots leading to a compelling climax.For nonfiction authors, your readers have a problem and they need you to solve it. Knowing your audience and writing for them is the best way to make your content valuable and in demand. You can master your craft by giving people what they desire most: entertainment, information, inspiration, or a book that promises to change their lives forever.Ask Yourself:Who am I writing for?Does my content provide a specific solution?Am I engaging my readers?Pro Author Trait #4: Delegate Business Work to Other ProfessionalsThere are so many tasks that a writer can do that have nothing to do with writing: editing, cover design, formatting, book promotions, and social media engagement. The list is endless. For pro authors, the crux of your daily activities should focused around product creation. This could be writing a book, blogging, or creati ng a course.But the fact is, time is limited. If you try to do it all, you’ll get burned out and start watching television to escape.As with any business, you need a tribe of people assigned to different parts of the business so that you have more time to do the work that only you can do: writing books. This means creating content readers love should be at the forefront of your business. Delegating everything else to freelancers will save you precious time and eliminate the stress of feeling like â€Å"I have to do it all.†Ask yourself:Is there anything I’m doing that falls outside of content creation?If so, could the extra work be done by someone else?Could I find someone on Upwork or Fiverr to take care of it, or do I need to look elsewhere?Identify where you can save yourself both time and stress by delegating the little stuff so you can spend more time doing what pro authors do bestwrite books!Pro Author Trait #5: Become a Habitual Note TakerBoth fiction and nonfiction writers craft their books around the ideas they have day and night. And we never know when or where these ideas are going to strike.Ideas are like rainbows; one minute they’re here and the next minutepoof, they’re gone! You need to be ready at all times to catch ideas as they come. If not, you’ll struggle to remember hours later what that â€Å"golden idea† was that passed through your mind.Get into the habit of carrying a small notebook with you. When you go to sleep, keep your notebook within reach for ideas that come in the night, or as you doze in the morning. You can install idea-capturing apps on your devices such as Evernote, Simplenote, and Apple Notes. Make your idea capturing system easily accessible at all times.Ask yourself:Am I prepared at all times for capturing ideas?How can I set up my system for note taking when I’m on the run? When I’m sleeping? When I’m at a party conversing with important people and sud denly get that idea I’ve been waiting for all year?Free Course: Discover my blueprint to gofrom blank page to bestseller in 90 daysIf you want to finish your book, you need a roadmap. That’s why I’m sharing some of the best strategies and tricks other bestselling authors paid thousands of dollars to get yours FREE.Here’s what you’ll get:The EXACT blueprint to FINALLY cross â€Å"write a book† off your bucket list in just 90 daysThe Bestselling Book Launch Blueprint behind dozens of bestsellersCase studies of bestselling authors who made $1,287, $5,500, even $12,424.03 from their first bookGet FREE behind-the-scenes access nowPro Author Trait #6: Read with Purposeful IntentWriters read! Yes, we love reading. It stimulates your imagination and paves the way for more ideas. You can read books in your genre or read something totally unrelated. When you’re not writing, set aside time to read your favorite book. If you are writing a serie s of books on sales, you could read books on that topic. It could give you more insight into your area of expertise.Reading just fifteen minutes before bed enhances sleep patterns, reduces cortisol levels, and improves cognitive functions. So don’t find the time to read; make a conscious choice to create that reading habit, even if it is only for a few minutes.Ask Yourself:How much time can I read a day?What book can I start reading now that would improve my business or contribute to personal development?Pro Author Trait #7: Retain Readers and Build a Loyal Fan BaseIf you notice, almost all professional authors got that way because they focused on a particular brand or niche. Then they built a strong following of raving fans in that niche. Readers become fans and fans become regular customers who buy your other books.The best way to create a loyal following is to write for your fans. Keep giving them more of what they crave by constantly creating content that offers value. Wh en you write, know who you are writing for and create content they need.By using an email marketing service such as MailChimp or AWeber, you can gather email addresses of your loyal fans and communicate with them regularly. Pro authors understand the absolute must of having an email list, and they build their author business entirely around it.Ask Yourself:Am I writing for a specific niche, or do I change topics often?What do my readers like about my work? If you aren’t sure yet, find out why people are reading your stuff.What email marketing service am I using to collect email addresses?Pro Author Trait #8: Recognize the Importance of RewritingEvery great author knows that the real writing isnt in the first draft- the real work towards greatness begins during the self-editing phase. The first draft offers a framework for the book and the rewrite is the guts of the machine; it’s here that all the sweating and crying pays off.Writing is 10% talent and 90% hard work. The pros spend about 20% of their efforts on the first draft and the rest goes towards rewriting, revising, pulling their hair out, and refining the manuscript until they get it to the point that it’s good enough to ship to the editor.Many authors, even the pros, can get bogged down in editing. This is especially true when the perfectionist monster is on your back. But real pros know that an unfinished book is an unpublished book, and nobody reads a book that isn’t published.In a very tiny nutshell, here’s how to be a writer:Be a pro.Revise your work.Let a professional editor polish it.Ship your product.Ask Yourself:Do I spend enough time on rewriting?Do I get bogged down in the editing phase and need to ship it to the editor?Pro Author Trait #9: Ship Product Consistently Despite Their FearsAs Seth Godin says:â€Å"Ship often. Ship lousy stuff, but ship. Ship constantly. Skip meetings. Often. Skip them with impunity. Ship†¦The paradox of our time is that the instincts that kept us safe in the day of the saber tooth tiger and General Motors are precisely the instincts that will turn us into road kill in a faster than fast internet-fueled era. The resistance is waiting. Fight it. Ship.†James Patterson published 15 titles last year. Indie author Patrick King publishes a book every 4-5 weeks.Pro authors are always putting out content and creating. But shipping raises fear in many people. Let’s face it, it’s scary to put stuff out there for everyone to judge and criticize. But if you want to become the professional you know you can be, you have to ship your product as often as you can.Ask Yourself:Am I stuck because I’m afraid of shipping my book?How can I get over the fear of putting my content out there?Pro Author Trait #10: Become a Master of RejectionIf there is any one trait that a professional writer has it is this: the ability to keep pushing forward despite the critics, naysayers, and abundant forms of reje ction. You’ve no doubt heard the stories of power authors like Rowling and Grisham, King and Margaret Mitchell. Getting rejected or having your draft torn apart by critics and reviewers can crush your confidence, but only if you let it.The one trait that turns an average person into extraordinary is the ability of taking rejection and crushing through the barrier of being told â€Å"No.† The authors who make it develop grit. In psychology, grit  is based on your passion for a particular long-term goal, alongside motivation to achieve your objective. In other words, you get what you want when you want it badly enough.Ask Yourself:How badly do I want to write this book?Am I passionate about the story or content I am crafting?How Bad Do You Want It?Success as an author rarely happens by accident. It’s a combination of strategic planning, your mental attitude, and perseverance. Whether you are struggling to write your first book, or you already have a thriving bus iness based on writing, by sticking to the 10 traits of successful authors, you can take your writing career to an all new level.Now you know how to be a writer. But are you going to do it? Imagine where you could be in six months from now once you implement these traits and make it happen.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Identities and globalization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Identities and globalization - Essay Example elop a global identity that gives them a sense of belonging to a worldwide culture and includes an awareness of the events, practices, styles, and information that are part of the global culture† (Arnett, 2002, p. 777). In this quote, the author states that most people in the world, especially young people are the ones who are facing the challenge where they have to adopt both the global and local identity. This challenge sometimes can lead to a â€Å"hybrid identity† which is described as a mixture of both the local and global culture (Arnett, 2002, p. 778). However, the author does not provide an explanation and examples of the psychological impact of this bicultural identity in young peoples daily lives. Even though he covered this aspect, on the identity confusion section about how people can feel excluded from a society or alienated, he did not provide us with a strong example about the psychological impact of the bicultural identity. By mentioning the psychological impact of the bicultural identity in his essay, it will make readers engage and care more about this topic. One of the prominent issues described by the author in the article is on bicultural identities. The form of identity is noted as affecting young people from different parts of the world especially those from non-western countries. The author notes that in this new form of identity, people have a part of their identity rooted in their local culture while the other part is influenced by global culture (Arnett, 2002). The argument on this identity is based on increased global consciousness that is taking place in many children and adolescents. First, the author notes that children have started growing developing conscious based on the things that they observe in the world. As a result, the world things continue to influence children more in comparison to the things that take place in a local environment. As the author indicates, â€Å"Young people develop a global identity that gives them a